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Fundamentals of Statistics 1: Basic Concepts :: Quantitative and Categorical Data
As you'd probably guess, statistics involve using numbers from data. Not all data are the same and knowing what type of data we're dealing with will guide us through what we can do with it. The two basic divisions of data are qualitative or categorical data and quantitative or numeric data.

For example, typing speed is quantitative. Favorite colors are qualitative/categorical. Some more examples are :
  1. Weight in pounds
  2. Length in inches
  3. Time in seconds
  4. Number of questions correct on a quiz
  1. Model of car
  2. Gender
  3. Yes or No
  4. Pass or Fail

Just because you have a number, doesn't necessarily make it quantitative. For example, zip codes, phone numbers and bank-accounts are numeric, but it doesn't make much sense to find the average phone number or median zip-code. These are examples of numbers applied to categorical data.

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